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Another agreement made trade with Axum (in what is now Ethiopia) and the African coast secure, as was also the Arabian coastal sea route.Furthermore, members of the Quraysh house of ʿAbd Manāf concluded pacts with Byzantium, Persia, and rulers of Yemen and Ethiopia, promoting commerce outside Arabia.They had to pay the tax, but this was not novel because the tribal chiefs had already been taxed to protect the Meccan Islam, however, was destined for a world role.Under Muhammad’s successors the expansionist urge of the tribes, temporarily united around the nucleus of the two sacred enclaves, coincided with the weakness of Byzantium and Sāsānian Persia.The latter half of ʿUthmān’s reign coincided with a slackening in the tide of conquest.ʿUthmān was censured for diverting property, revenues, and booty in Iraq and Egypt to his Quraysh relatives.
In Oman, too, when Arab tribes evicted the Persian ruling class, its complex irrigation system seems to have suffered severely.
Temple privileges held by Quṣayy, who established the rule of Quraysh, passed to his posterity, the ʿAbd Manāf house of which collected the tax to feed the pilgrims.
The Kaʿbah, through the additions of other cults, developed into a pantheon, the cult of other gods perhaps being linked with political agreements between Quraysh—worshipers of Allah—and the tribes.
Once Muʿāwiyah and the Umayyads had seized overlordship of the far-flung Islamic empire, which they ruled from Damascus, the Holy Cities remained only the spiritual capitals of Islam.
The Umayyad caliphs appointed governors over the three crucial areas of the Hejaz, Yemen, and Oman, but in Iraq occasional powerful governors managed to control the Persian Gulf provinces, the gulf being an important maritime trade route, especially under the ʿAbbāsids.
Rejected by the Quraysh lords, Muhammad sought affiliation with other tribes; he was unsuccessful until he managed to negotiate a pact with the tribal chiefs of Muhammad’s men attacked a Quraysh caravan, thus breaking the vital security system established by the ʿAbd Manāf house, and hostilities broke out against his Meccan kinsmen.